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美國國家公共電臺 NPR--How the migration of Southern whites in the 20th century shaped America's landscape

時間:2023-12-29 06:46來源:互聯網 提供網友:nan ? 字體: [ ]
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How the migration1 of Southern whites in the 20th century shaped America's landscape

Transcript2

NPR's Michel Martin speaks to researcher Samuel Bazzi about the lasting3 cultural and political impact of the northward4 movement of white Southerners in the early 20th century.

LEILA FADEL, HOST:

In the early part of the 20th century, the Great Migration saw millions of African Americans leave the South for urban areas in the North. Now a new study sheds light on another great migration. Between 1900 and 1940, about 5 million white Southerners also left the region, and the study shows how the political and cultural influence of this migration continues to be felt today. My colleague Michel Martin spoke5 to Samuel Bazzi, one of the authors of the study. He's also an associate professor at the University of California, San Diego. Bazzi started out talking about where these migrants landed.

SAMUEL BAZZI: They really did settle all over the United States. And while they did go to places in, say, the Northeast and kind of the economic heartland, at least in the early part of the 20th century, they went there in, at least in relative numbers, much less than they did to places out in the Western United States. One important fact that really distinguishes the Southern white diaspora from the Southern Black diaspora in many ways is that the white diaspora really could be found across the density6 divide. They settled in very rural places, in small towns, in big towns and big cities, whereas the Black diaspora was really concentrated in some of the biggest cities, the most dense7 places in urban America.

MICHEL MARTIN, BYLINE8: So that's fascinating. One of the things that I think is most striking and one of the things that's gotten a lot of attention is that you set forth9 the theory that this white Southern diaspora has had a really profound effect on the country's politics. Tell us why.

BAZZI: The first kind of important fact really stems from the point that I just highlighted, which is that they were really geographically10 diffuse11. And so why is that important in the American electoral system? Well, our electoral college really overrepresents low-density places, low-population states relative to higher-population places and states.

MARTIN: Well, just to clarify for folks, so South Dakota has the same two senators as California. So there's that. What else?

BAZZI: That's right. So that's really key. And then in the other is the fact that these migrants, in many ways, really did bring new or at least intensified12 forms of religious conservatism to new parts of the country. They brought evangelical Protestantism from the American South and brought that with them to many places across America. And evangelical Christianity becomes much more politically engaged as a voting bloc13 and really mobilized in the 1970s. That's certainly one really important feature. And then the other is racial conservatism. And so if you look at survey data from the 1950s, 1960s, you can see that the Southern white diaspora looks much more similar, in terms of their racial attitudes, to the white populations living in the South as compared to those living in the rest of the country.

MARTIN: Do you think that the influence of this group was mainly that they settled in places that weren't as populous14, so they kind of had an outsized impact? Or do you think they influenced their neighbors?

BAZZI: So I think we certainly find evidence of that outsized impact in these places that are less populous. But the other thing that we find is that, indeed, there does seem to be a very kind of localized intergroup contact. You may be going to the same church every Sunday. Your children may be going to the same schools. So I think there are kind of a lot of really localized neighborhood-based channels through which these migrants could be influencing their neighbors.

One thing that we do see quite clearly in the data is that - just to give you a concrete example, take a non-Southern white individual. If they are moving to a community where there happens to be a large Southern white migrant population, what we actually are able to see is that when you're exposed to that Southern white diaspora among your very local neighbors, you begin to give your children more religious names and tend to send a strong signal to others of your religiosity.

MARTIN: So let me be clear, again, that your report is based on statistical15 data. Can you tell us why you're so convinced that you can draw conclusions about the influence of this migration in the early 20th century on election results decades later?

BAZZI: The first is that we're, indeed, focused on that early wave of mass migration of whites out of the South in the early 1900s. And we're detecting a kind of impact on politics and a rightward shift in the communities to which they're migrating as early as the 1960s. And, of course, the 1960s were this kind of critical juncture16 in American politics as conservatives really realigned behind the Republican Party. And we saw the kind of mass exodus17 of Southern white voters from the Democratic Party. We also see that they begin to lose voters from the Southern white diaspora outside the South, in the communities in which that diaspora had begun to build deep roots in the middle of the 20th century. And then, of course, as partisan18 politics have really calcified19 in America, we've really seen the imprint20 of that diaspora persisting all the way through to the last, say, five or six presidential elections.

MARTIN: Before we let you go, where do you want to take this research next?

BAZZI: What we're doing is really digging deeply into the immediate21 post-Civil War era and basically looking at the migration of white individuals out of the former Confederate states and tracking those migrants who grew up living in an economy that was governed by slavery. They really played an important role in diffusing22 Confederate culture, Confederate nostalgia23 outside of the American South and helped grow and mobilize white supremacy24 in new forms in many places outside of the American South.

MARTIN: So why you might see a Confederate flag in places you don't expect.

BAZZI: Precisely25.

MARTIN: Samuel Bazzi is the researcher and writer on the paper we've been talking about. It's titled "The Other Great Migration: Southern Whites And The New Right." Thanks so much for talking with us and sharing this really, really interesting research with us.

BAZZI: Thanks very much for having me, Michel.

(SOUNDBITE OF BRAD MEHLDAU'S "HIGHWAY RIDER")


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 migration mDpxj     
n.遷移,移居,(鳥類等的)遷徙
參考例句:
  • Swallows begin their migration south in autumn.燕子在秋季開始向南方遷移。
  • He described the vernal migration of birds in detail.他詳細地描述了鳥的春季移居。
2 transcript JgpzUp     
n.抄本,謄本,副本,肄業證書
參考例句:
  • A transcript of the tapes was presented as evidence in court.一份錄音帶的文字本作為證據被呈交法庭。
  • They wouldn't let me have a transcript of the interview.他們拒絕給我一份采訪的文字整理稿。
3 lasting IpCz02     
adj.永久的,永恒的;vbl.持續,維持
參考例句:
  • The lasting war debased the value of the dollar.持久的戰爭使美元貶值。
  • We hope for a lasting settlement of all these troubles.我們希望這些糾紛能獲得永久的解決。
4 northward YHexe     
adv.向北;n.北方的地區
參考例句:
  • He pointed his boat northward.他將船駛向北方。
  • I would have a chance to head northward quickly.我就很快有機會去北方了。
5 spoke XryyC     
n.(車輪的)輻條;輪輻;破壞某人的計劃;阻撓某人的行動 v.講,談(speak的過去式);說;演說;從某種觀點來說
參考例句:
  • They sourced the spoke nuts from our company.他們的輪輻螺帽是從我們公司獲得的。
  • The spokes of a wheel are the bars that connect the outer ring to the centre.輻條是輪子上連接外圈與中心的條棒。
6 density rOdzZ     
n.密集,密度,濃度
參考例句:
  • The population density of that country is 685 per square mile.那個國家的人口密度為每平方英里685人。
  • The region has a very high population density.該地區的人口密度很高。
7 dense aONzX     
a.密集的,稠密的,濃密的;密度大的
參考例句:
  • The general ambushed his troops in the dense woods. 將軍把部隊埋伏在濃密的樹林里。
  • The path was completely covered by the dense foliage. 小路被樹葉厚厚地蓋了一層。
8 byline sSXyQ     
n.署名;v.署名
參考例句:
  • His byline was absent as well.他的署名也不見了。
  • We wish to thank the author of this article which carries no byline.我們要感謝這篇文章的那位沒有署名的作者。
9 forth Hzdz2     
adv.向前;向外,往外
參考例句:
  • The wind moved the trees gently back and forth.風吹得樹輕輕地來回搖晃。
  • He gave forth a series of works in rapid succession.他很快連續發表了一系列的作品。
10 geographically mg6xa     
adv.地理學上,在地理上,地理方面
參考例句:
  • Geographically, the UK is on the periphery of Europe. 從地理位置上講,英國處于歐洲邊緣。 來自辭典例句
  • All these events, however geographically remote, urgently affected Western financial centers. 所有這些事件,無論發生在地理上如何遙遠的地方,都對西方金融中心產生緊迫的影響。 來自名作英譯部分
11 diffuse Al0zo     
v.擴散;傳播;adj.冗長的;四散的,彌漫的
參考例句:
  • Direct light is better for reading than diffuse light.直射光比漫射光更有利于閱讀。
  • His talk was so diffuse that I missed his point.他的談話漫無邊際,我抓不住他的要點。
12 intensified 4b3b31dab91d010ec3f02bff8b189d1a     
v.(使)增強, (使)加劇( intensify的過去式和過去分詞 )
參考例句:
  • Violence intensified during the night. 在夜間暴力活動加劇了。
  • The drought has intensified. 旱情加劇了。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
13 bloc RxFzsg     
n.集團;聯盟
參考例句:
  • A solid bloc of union members support the decision.工會會員團結起來支持該決定。
  • There have been growing tensions within the trading bloc.貿易同盟國的關系越來越緊張。
14 populous 4ORxV     
adj.人口稠密的,人口眾多的
參考例句:
  • London is the most populous area of Britain.倫敦是英國人口最稠密的地區。
  • China is the most populous developing country in the world.中國是世界上人口最多的發展中國家。
15 statistical bu3wa     
adj.統計的,統計學的
參考例句:
  • He showed the price fluctuations in a statistical table.他用統計表顯示價格的波動。
  • They're making detailed statistical analysis.他們正在做具體的統計分析。
16 juncture e3exI     
n.時刻,關鍵時刻,緊要關頭
參考例句:
  • The project is situated at the juncture of the new and old urban districts.該項目位于新老城區交界處。
  • It is very difficult at this juncture to predict the company's future.此時很難預料公司的前景。
17 exodus khnzj     
v.大批離去,成群外出
參考例句:
  • The medical system is facing collapse because of an exodus of doctors.由于醫生大批離去,醫療系統面臨崩潰。
  • Man's great challenge at this moment is to prevent his exodus from this planet.人在當前所遇到的最大挑戰,就是要防止人從這個星球上消失。
18 partisan w4ZzY     
adj.黨派性的;游擊隊的;n.游擊隊員;黨徒
參考例句:
  • In their anger they forget all the partisan quarrels.憤怒之中,他們忘掉一切黨派之爭。
  • The numerous newly created partisan detachments began working slowly towards that region.許多新建的游擊隊都開始慢慢地向那里移動。
19 calcified d1402948ac76a5e8f25627d6c15341c5     
v.(使)鈣化,(使)硬化( calcify的過去式和過去分詞 )
參考例句:
  • The rock calcified over the centuries. 經過幾個世紀,石頭發生了鈣化。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • By age 10, 50% of patients have calcified cortical tubers. 10歲的時候,50%的病人出現鈣化結節。 來自互聯網
20 imprint Zc6zO     
n.印痕,痕跡;深刻的印象;vt.壓印,牢記
參考例句:
  • That dictionary is published under the Longman imprint.那本詞典以朗曼公司的名義出版。
  • Her speech left its imprint on me.她的演講給我留下了深刻印象。
21 immediate aapxh     
adj.立即的;直接的,最接近的;緊靠的
參考例句:
  • His immediate neighbours felt it their duty to call.他的近鄰認為他們有責任去拜訪。
  • We declared ourselves for the immediate convocation of the meeting.我們主張立即召開這個會議。
22 diffusing 14602ac9aa9fec67dcb4228b9fef0c68     
(使光)模糊,漫射,漫散( diffuse的現在分詞 ); (使)擴散; (使)彌漫; (使)傳播
參考例句:
  • Compounding this confusion is a diffusing definition of journalist. 新聞和娛樂的摻和擴散了“記者”定義。
  • Diffusing phenomena also so, after mix cannot spontaneous separating. 擴散現象也如此,混合之后不能自發的分開。
23 nostalgia p5Rzb     
n.懷鄉病,留戀過去,懷舊
參考例句:
  • He might be influenced by nostalgia for his happy youth.也許是對年輕時幸福時光的懷戀影響了他。
  • I was filled with nostalgia by hearing my favourite old song.我聽到這首喜愛的舊歌,心中充滿了懷舊之情。
24 supremacy 3Hzzd     
n.至上;至高權力
參考例句:
  • No one could challenge her supremacy in gymnastics.她是最優秀的體操運動員,無人能勝過她。
  • Theoretically,she holds supremacy as the head of the state.從理論上說,她作為國家的最高元首擁有至高無上的權力。
25 precisely zlWzUb     
adv.恰好,正好,精確地,細致地
參考例句:
  • It's precisely that sort of slick sales-talk that I mistrust.我不相信的正是那種油腔滑調的推銷宣傳。
  • The man adjusted very precisely.那個人調得很準。
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